A place where biological samples are stored, such as a biobank.
A co-morbid condition is one that occurs on top of another illness. For example, co-morbid depression is common among people who have chronic illnesses such as cancer, multiple sclerosis and ME/CFS.
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression (active versus inactive genes) that does not involve changes to the underlying DNA sequence. Epigenetic change is a regular and natural occurrence but can also be influenced by several factors including age, the environment/lifestyle, and disease state.
A genome-wide association study is an approach that involves rapidly scanning markers across the complete sets of DNA, or genomes, of many people to find genetic variations associated with a particular disease, in this case ME/CFS. Once new genetic associations are identified, researchers can use the information to develop better strategies to detect, treat and prevent the disease.
In medicine and genetics, a heterogeneous condition is one where the same disease or condition can be caused, or contributed to, by several factors.
This refers to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) that enables the researcher to view aspects of the structure and function of the brain.
Metabolomics is the large-scale study of small molecules, commonly known as metabolites, within cells, biofluids, tissues or organisms. Collectively, these small molecules and their interactions within a biological system are known as the metabolome.
Collectively designates emerging fields of large-scale data-rich biology.
Transcriptomics is the study of the transcriptome, the complete set of RNA transcripts that are produced by the genome, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell. Comparison of transcriptomes allows the identification of genes that are differentially expressed in distinct cell populations, or in response to different treatments.
Phenotype is to do with observable characteristics and traits – from a biology point of view its counterpart is the Genotype, the genetic make-up. Research indicates that there are a number of disease phenotypes within ME/CFS, each with different symptom patterns.
As referenced in the NICE guideline for ME/CFS, the Canadian Guideline describes post-exertional malaise as: “an inappropriate loss of physical and mental stamina, rapid muscular and cognitive fatigability, post-exertional malaise and/or fatigue and/or pain and a tendency for associated symptoms within the patient’s cluster of symptoms to worsen. There is a pathologically slow recovery period – usually 24 hours or longer.”